Megaliths (from the Greek. – a large stone) is a prehistoric construction of the huge blocks. In the limiting case that one module (the menhir). The term is not strictly scientific, because the definition of megaliths and megalithic structures fall rather vague group of buildings. Most often they belong to the preliterate era of the area.
Megaliths vserasprostranennym in the world mainly in coastal areas. In Europe, they are in the main dated from the era of the Eneolithic and the bronze age (3-2 Millennium BC), except the UK, where the megaliths belong to the Neolithic era. Megalithic monuments are numerous and varied separately in Brittany. Also a huge number of megaliths found on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, Portugal, parts of France, on the Western coast of great Britain, Ireland, Denmark, on the South coast of Sweden and in Israel. First, the twentieth century was vserasprostranennoy worldview that all megaliths belonged to one global megalithic culture, yet modern research and Dating methods disprove this assumption. Continue reading
Gothic architecture — the period of development of Western European and Central European architecture, appropriate Mature and late middle Ages (late twelfth to early sixteenth century). Gothic architecture replaced the Romanesque architecture of the era and in turn gave way to the architecture of the Renaissance period .
In the second half of the tenth century came to an end the debilitating forces of Europe it is time for military confrontation with the Normans and the Magyars. France resumed the construction of abbeys and monasteries, serving in the main centers of knowledge and education.
Romanesque and Gothic architecture was impossible without architectural predecessors ‘ experience and their accumulated mathematical knowledge. The geometrical proportions prevailed thanks to the authority of scholars of Arabic Spain and of the ancient mathematicians, whose works are actively translated in medieval France. The geometry of the imaginations of medieval artists as a universal means of understanding and modelling the universe.
For the construction of the majestic Gothic Cathedral was required prospected deposits of stone, sand, lime, timber (wood) and the presence of lead. the plates which were covered with long Gothic roof. All of these conditions successfully sovpalo France, Spain, UK, Czech Republic, Italy. Continue reading
August 30 (17 on old style) in 1829 in Moscow was founded one of the most famous stone Triumphal arches . This arch was supposed to replace wood, built at the Tverskaya Zastava in 1814 for the solemn meeting with the victorious Russian troops returning from Western Europe. Designed a new stone arch of the largest Russian architect Osip Ivanovich Bove.
This triumphal arch stood for 102 years, until in 1936 was not taken the decision to expand the square at the Belarus station where she stood. The famous building was demolished and its rich sculptural fragments deposited in a branch of the Architectural Museum. But in 1966, the Moscow authorities decided to restore the triumphal arch. Worked on a project with experienced sculptors, restorers, craftsmen in artistic casting and minting. 6 November 1968 a remarkable creation of Bove received a second life. But now the famous triumphal arch stands on Victory square, Poklonnaya mountain, forming with the Museum-panorama “battle of Borodino”, the “Kutuzovskaya izba” and other monuments of a single historical-memorial complex. Continue reading