The megalithic complex of Pinako
Under barrow (underground) dolmen in Tolosa (lined with special masonry stones) with a dromos (an underground passage gallery). The unique megalithic complex. Possible ancient solar Observatory. And – complete collapse. Almost nothing has been preserved. At first the robbers is a long time. In our time the place of the mound needed for farming activities. The mound began to pull apart by bulldozers, to shred the roads. And then began the excavation. The sorry state of one of the most interesting megalithic structures of Russia made an attempt of computer 3D reconstruction of the megalith. Read more about the renovation, read the end of the article.
Location. Tuapse district, river valley Pshenaho.About a kilometer up the valley Pshenaho from the village of Anastasievka on the right orographic Bank is one of the most unique megalithic structures in the Caucasus. After some time, passing on a dirt road up the valley will see a fork. The road to the left leads through a Ford to the edge of the Apple orchard. Here is a small hill with several large oak trees, overgrown with grass and bushes (more than 150m).
Current status, research, and version. This building is under barrow the dolmen with an underground passage. Ie built a dolmen, surrounded by walls of stones, strengthened on the outside by a layer of clay, has held made of flat plates fitted underground passage to the front of the tube, then all this is peppered by stones. On arheologicheskaya such a structure is called a dolmen in Tholos with dromos. Underground passage goes from the entrance of dolmen to the pit. Stroke length of about 12 m, the average height and width is 0.5 m, the course is lined by flat plates of irregular shape.
The height of the mound is now about 4.8 m, estimated diameter of the mound is about 57 m. The figure shows a cross section through the remnants of the mound-marked and the above-described layers. The dolmen entrance is oriented to South-West. Dating on the coals, taken at the bottom of the entrance to the dromos on C14 gave 2320+-40 years BC (without calibration).
I note that the passage does not follow the section line and is therefore not indicated in the figure. Digital data and figure taken from the work,And, Marcovina 1997 (“the Dolmen monuments of the Kuban and black sea region”) in which he described the results of excavations.
The excavation was supervised by an employee of the Museum of Tuapse M. K. Teshev, at the time, who discovered the megalith.
Now from mound little left. Even M. K. Teshev found it in pretty poor condition (1972). Tried the local bulldozer. Further, it was found that the barrow was also excavated in ancient times by robbers. And after several years of excavations to understand something even with drawings is difficult.
TESEV put forward the theory that Pinako-1 is the oldest solar Observatory. The fact that the stories of the locals, the mound originally covered the divergent rays of stones, limited stone circle is a cromlech, in the centre was a platform, also bounded by boulders. M. K. Teshev first reconstructed system as 18-beam, but then reduced the number of rays to 12. In his interpretation, the complex was used including observations of the sun and stands in one row with such famous structures as Stonehenge and new Grange.
Read more here about astroarchaeology M. Kudin “Astroarchaeology and dolmens”. It tells in particular about this mound.
Three-dimensional reconstruction. The basis was adopted by the 12-beam model M. K. Teshev. According to excavations, it seems that the megalith was built in several stages. First, apparently, to the dolmen on the site of the mound was simply a sacred place and there were two small adjoining cromlech. Then built a dolmen with masonry, with a clay layer and bulk. That underground corridor led not to the edge of the mound and in the ditch – an extremely rare case in megalithic structures. It says, rather, that the initial steep embankment began to unravel. In those days it was extremely visited stone tube erased from frequent use. The presence of stone circles involves the execution of some action on the mound – the mound could not help but start to spread. In the end, not a very good descendants, most likely, reported the mound to the modern radius. But the gallery remain the same, making the entrance into it through the hole. This state of the mound is reflected in the reconstruction. Sometimes seen concentric circles of the profile of the mound celebrated its natural uneven “spreading” due to the heterogeneity and non-simultaneity of structural elements.
The restored landscape is not very accurate. We used the assumption of weak forest cover of the slopes of the mountains in the distant former times – almost bare slopes with groves of oaks.
The idea of restoring beams M. K. Teshev learned from the locals. Hence, the system of double cromlech with the rays existed in some form not so long ago – perhaps even in the middle of our century.