The underground water supply of Jerusalem
Underground water facilities in Jerusalem is a special milestone in the history of the development of the city of David. Initially, residents used a single source called the Gihon outside the city walls. So during the siege, residents were left without water, the source is carefully disguised, and the rock struck the tunnel where the water was going into the city.
The Gihon spring was distinguished by one feature: it periodically with the difference of a few hours threw the water fountain, and the citizens had to figure out how to collect water and supply it to the consumers. Archaeologists have long explored the underground hydro-technical constructions, created by ancient inhabitants of Jerusalem to collect the waters of the spring Gihon.
The Aqueduct Of Hezekiah
During the reign of Judean king Hezekiah from Gihon to Siamcom pond was built a tunnel length of about 600 meters. The tunnel passed under the city walls, directing water source to the pond located within the territory of the city. Traces of ancient constructions are still visible today. Tourists visiting the country of the Jews, to lead tours of the “water of Hezekiah”. It is noteworthy that the tunnel was quite sophisticated for their time engineering work.
An outlet channel
Odvodnika was discovered during archaeological excavations in the City of David. Through the channel of the water of Gihon was diverted to the southern reservoirs of the city. Part of the canal dug out in the ground, some carved into the rock. In the wall of the tunnel, hewn in stone, were made holes for water drainage in Kerensky valley, where the farmland.
This Grand structure was discovered by British archaeologist Charles Warren in 1867. Mine Warren is a sloping tunnel in the floor which cut stairs, starting to cut into the rock of the grotto. The slope of the tunnel gradually decreases and begins its horizontal part. The ceiling height is 10 meters, the distance between the walls is 3 meters. The total length of the tunnel from the grotto to the place where it breaks vertical shaft 42 metres. The shaft height of about 15 meters and its bottom is just at the level of the water source, the Gihon.
The vertical shaft is a kind of natural underground borehole or well, where did you draw the water the inhabitants of the city, descending through a tunnel with the top of the mountain. Natural origin proved mine geologist Dan Gil. During the study, the mines of the Warren, it was found that the builders of the aqueduct of Hezekiah was only slightly expanded the tunnels, discovered in the rocks. This natural tray is struck in porous limestone water flowing from the spring of Gihon.
However, there are opponents of the theory of Giles. After receiving the results of another study of underground facilities, some scientists came to the conclusion that the tunnels — the work of the navvies who worked on the construction of the Jerusalem water supply, but not water.
To refute the assumption of Daniel Giles, the researchers completed the drilling of boreholes. and many of these exploration wells were taken from drill samples. Analysis of samples showed that the water in the tunnel appeared after it was built. Consequently, water could not flush the tunnel, and its handmade nature is undeniable.
Shimron and Frumkin, researchers who disproved the theory of Giles, had made another discovery. The water tunnel of Hezekiah was dug without the creation of auxiliary shafts. The direction of movement of diggers was set from the surface, pounding through rock stones.