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Underground structures in the estate of Avdotyino-Tikhvin

1. The Church of the Tikhvin icon of the Mother of God, 1749-1753гг.

2. The wing of the mid 19th century. ( currently an abandoned, badly damaged in a fire ).

3. The building of the former school of the late 19th century.

4. The building of the baths of the 19th century. ( currently abandoned ).

5. The 19th century coach house. ( to date, only the base remains ).

6. Forge the end of the 19th century. ( to date, remained badly damaged parts of the walls ).

7. Presumably the Foundation of the construction

8. The white-stone Foundation of a building, presumably the main house ( on the ground expressed a sinkhole with exposed white stone and brick walls, addition 2013. )

9. The Foundation of the silos 1930-1940. (1)

10. Brick peasant house of the late 18th century.

11. Remnants of a wooden bridge p. 20V. ( it was kept in piles in the riverbed ).

12. Ruins of the agricultural complex

Lines of dots indicate preserved alleys.

On the issue of underground structures of interest 2 of the object, which are possible to study now. This farmstead outbuilding (scheme I, 2) and the white-stone Foundation of the building (scheme I, 8), which was discovered in the fall of 2013.

Scheme III. The drainage system of the well in the basement of the outhouse. 1-well, 2-drain tank, 3-basement,3A-floor basement, 4 the foundations and wall of wings, 5-drain pipe, 6 – output level drainage trubye the top of the well wing ).

Version. The wing of the manor Donetsk is located close enough to the river, the height above the water level about 5-6m. the Level of groundwater comes very close to the surface. Under these conditions, it is highly likely flooding of the basement during the spring increase of groundwater level. Apparently, for the prevention of negative consequences was built a drainage reservoir into which the pipe went the excess water from the well, located in the basement of the building. The level of the pipe outlet into the drain tank below the floor level in the basement of the outhouse – such a device will not allow water to rise in the well above the safe level. The inclined position of the tube is necessary for her mouth in the well was constantly above the level below which the water in the well does not fall. The pipe should be partially filled with water forming a water seal to prevent air circulation between the well and drain the tank. If this is not provided, then through a pipe in the cellar will permeate the cold winter air, unpleasant odor from drain tanks, there will be drafts, etc. The second ceramic pipe that goes in a South-easterly direction, apparently, served to drain water overflow the drain tank. Where did she go so far to say not possible. Apparently there was one drainage capacity.

The white stone Foundation with a basement.

Is located at 70m to the North-West wing, was discovered in the autumn of 2013. Represents a failure in the soil, the edges of which are well-exposed brick rounded arches. Closer examination revealed that the failure is a collapsed vault of the basement, and opened inside the cavity are clearly visible vaulted ceilings and walls of white stone blocks. Masonry and brick parameters correspond to the end of the 19th n the 20th century. Dimensions of brick 270 130 70 correspond to samples from the walls of outhouses outhouse, wells and drainage of the tank. However, the white-stone laying seems to be more old, and is part of the Foundation of the building. Similar to the white stone walls of the basement of the outbuilding, which dates back to the 18th century.

Conclusions.

With high probability, underground structures located at the North-Western wall of the outbuilding in the estate of Avdotyino-Tikhvin are a drainage system that ensures the drainage of excess water from the well, located in the basement.

An interesting question arises in connection with the appointment of the well. It remains unknown whether he served as a water source, or the well was part of the drainage system, which did not give a soil to accumulate water in the basement? However, the version with the source of water seems likely as the well is an additional source of humidity in the room that under normal conditions, is unacceptable. A more plausible version is that at some time could occur raising the groundwater level in the area of Donetsk. This could be a result of the construction of a dam on the river Severka, or the result of any natural phenomena. In this case, the basement could podtoplentsy in the spring, which had not occurred earlier and that would remedy the situation – built drainage system, part of which was the well.

The Dating of these structures was performed by comparison of known information about the construction on the estate until 1917. the results of the study of brick masonry for the desired objects. Found out that the bricks of which built outbuildings outbuildings, a well, drain the tank and vaults of the basement, discovered in 2013 – have almost the same settings. In addition, they match the bricks of the masonry buildings of the former school and baths. It is known that these buildings were erected in the late 19th century, when the manor came into the possession of the Moscow city Duma. (It is established that by 1911 the wing had the appearance that we are seeing currently – attached(4). There is also a lithograph in the edition of 1900 and the wing extensions don’t matter)(5). At the same time was built and the forge, which now almost vanished. The age of bricks is confirmed by the tables on the Dating of brick masonry. Thus, Annex outbuildings, a well, a drainage tank built in the late 19th century, during a large-scale construction works, organized by the Moscow city Duma. Nothing to do with “Masonic” underground passages, these objects do not have.

Of great interest is the white stone Foundation with a basement, located 70 metres to the North-West wing. It is known that not preserved main house, where himself lived in N. And.Novikov was wooden on a stone Foundation and was located on the Bank of Severka. In one version, the house was demolished in 1879, the other burned. The alleged place where he could be marked on the plan N. L. Antonova, and corresponds to the location detected in 2013. object (Scheme I, 8). To clarify the situation can only archeological excavations. It is not excluded that the found belongs to the Foundation of the main house.

In fact, 70 metres from the wing is buried in the basement. Its vaults, apparently built in the late 19th century. How many areas has this underground structure is currently unknown, but it is possible that the basement was quite extensive, and was under the whole area of the remaining buildings. If we assume that the Foundation refers to the lost building of the main house of the estate, and after the destruction of the upper floors of the underground part were preserved and used for commercial purposes later, then it is possible that the presence of this object was the basis for legends about underground tunnels. It should be noted that the legend of “Masonic dungeons” could arise confusion in the geography of objects – the fact that in the Noginsk district of the Moscow region, the village of Avdotyino there are caves in the monastery Nikolo-Berlyukovsky desert