The megalithic complex of Pinako
Under barrow (underground) dolmen in Tolosa (lined with special masonry stones) with a dromos (an underground passage gallery). The unique megalithic complex. Possible ancient solar Observatory. And - complete collapse.…

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Ancient Roman fortress found in Italy
They found that it was part of a large military camp with an area of about 130 square meters and is located on strategic location on top of a hill.…

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Design of underground structures

As we see in the suburbs are built of small private buildings for private residence, high cottages, and active development of the cities is not outwards, but inwards and increasing the number of floors of urban buildings.

In new buildings must be provided underground multi-storey Parking, by the example of the capital include the emergence of a huge underground shopping malls, underground roads with junctions. Among businessmen a hundred popular to rent even offices underground. To take into account at least the development of metro lines, which do extend beyond the city limits.

During the construction of underground structures using modern technology . and the process is not long delayed. First specialized companies carefully conducted engineering and geological surveys. Before implementing horizontal directional drilling, to do underground piping must explore the soil, how deep are underground water, and only then is it meaningful to calculate the tunneling and engineering of underground structures. The largest underground road junction may well boast of Paris.

Engineering geological surveys showed that there can be safely done in all directions suburban metro. You must understand that prorabotayut infrastructure is much easier, because there is so much uncertainty. If inaccurately to carry out engineering geological surveys, whatever device wall you have not developed an underground structure won’t last long. Also open the ways of the underground construction allow for a more accurate design of underground structures. At the end of the work, all then firmly covered with soil and the object for rent.

But still needed to reliably determine physical and mechanical properties of the Foundation soil, to calculate the value of the passive and active pressure. In the process of engineering-geological surveys is not enough to check only the place for the construction of underground buildings and structures. Specialists examine adjacent structures that may affect underground urban construction. Developed by specialized companies working project. There are a lot of specific topics and some of them may be associated with dewatering and waterproofing.

Modern technologies included the involvement of the specialized software for accurate calculation. It is worth noting the fact that not all modern technologies of construction of underground facilities designed building codes, and sometimes there are no recommendations. Do not just think that the underground city is built lightly. For this purpose there are special experimental plots, and there is a clear planning of the control and experimental work, for example, piping.

Develop soil during the construction of underground structures by the following methods: the open method of underground construction the excavation takes place in the classical sequence, that is bottom-up; closed way “top-down” and there is a combined method “semy top-down”. Do sometimes stacked fastening of steel tubes, with ground anchors and pegs. To take advantage of a suitable structural scheme of metro development take into account the depth and size of the pit, hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions of construction, whether there are impermeable layers that can be transmitted vertical load.