The Gothic style of architecture
They are designed for the quantity of people around was full of life. Inside the Cathedral is spacious, the transept nearly merges with the longitudinal space. This eliminates a sharp boundary between clergy and visitors. “Sanctuary” ceases to be something inaccessible and unseen. The tombs are placed directly in the temple, and not in a dark underground crypt, in the Romanesque churches. The Gothic dramatic, but not gloomy and not sad.
The visual splendour of Gothic churches, including statues, reliefs, stained glass Windows and the altar painting, all that was conceived as a kind of encyclopedia of medieval knowledge – of course subordinate to theology. And in each Cathedral can be traced its own theme. For example, the Paris Cathedral was dedicated, the mother of God and all that is connected with it; Amiens expressed the idea of messianism: on the facade the figures of the prophets. But the intensions of these fine theological encyclopedias were, in General, so vague and allegories are so conditional that under their protection they found the place wide variety of subjects and motifs, including very far from the Church’s concept of the universe. Under the hands of medieval stonecutters dead stone comes to life and blooms with thousands of flowers. Hard found history more organic form of synthesis of art. emerging on that basis.
In most Gothic cathedrals sculpture decoration prevailed over the painting, except for the stained-glass Windows: it is again determined by the nature of the architecture, making the walls delicate and therefore unsuitable for frescos. Gothic painting developed in the form of wall paintings, mostly miniatures in manuscripts and paintings in the altars of the flaps. The painting of the altars was more developed in those countries where the Gothic architecture. for whatever reasons, remained relatively large and smooth surface of the walls. A wonderful altar painting had, for example, the medieval Bohemia. In most European countries, lying to the North of Italy, the Gothic style dominated for a long time. In the XV century
the Nordic countries can be considered or Gothic, or protorenessansnogo. There is no big difference, since the Renaissance, with all its absolute innovation, was a natural stage of medieval culture, in which that grew organically.
The largest Gothic cathedrals in France.
The hunchback of Notre DAME ( Notre-Dame de Paris ), an architectural monument of early French Gothic architecture in Paris on O. the Sieve. The five-naval Basilica (1163-1257, length 130 m, width of 108 m, the interior height of 32.5 m) with a transept and two flanking Western towers (height 69 m). Stained glass (13th century), the sculpture on the facades (approx. 1165-1225) and in the choir (13th-14th centuries).
The construction of the Cathedral began in 1163, by Maurice de Suli. It was under his leadership was the construction of giant temple: 5500 m2. The construction lasted almost two centuries. Notre Dame symbolizes the evolution in the Gothic style. Its tower, with a height of 69 meters, the clarity of the lines, the drawing of the building in the shape of a cross it was all a novelty for the era. 432 Windows of the Cathedral give an extraordinary lightness to the architectural ensemble.
Notre-Dame d Amien.
The largest Gothic Cathedral in France. It occupies 7760 m2, the height of the arches of 42.5 m, height of spire is 112 m. the Cathedral was built in the XIII century, in the period between 1220 and 1269 g, is an example of the Golden age of the cathedrals. The Cathedral was built in record time, after the fire in 1218, on the site of a Romanesque Church, which helped to create harmony and architectural unity of the building. Only the towers were completed in the end of XIV century. The impressive proportions of the Cathedral, its beauty, the richness of its interior decoration the admiration of many tourists. Not by chance in 1981, the Cathedral was recognized by UNESCO as one of the fifty most impressive architectural masterpieces of mankind.
Notre-Dame de Chartres.
Among the boundless fields appears as a Mirage Cathedral of our lady of Chartres. This is one of the most famous Gothic cathedrals in the world built in the middle of the XI century. The Cathedral was half destroyed in 1194 by a strong fire. Peasants from neighboring villages harnessed oxen in harness and carried huge blocks of stones for the reconstruction of the Cathedral. Only in 1260, the Cathedral was reconstructed and had one tower with a spire. Later in 1513, a second tower, which served as a bell tower.
Despite the external difference in the construction of the tower, the Cathedral, the splendid harmony of the interior. In this Cathedral you can trace a smooth transition from Romanesque to Gothic. The Cathedral is famous for its numerous sculptures, there are 4000 statues, depicting Jesus Christ, surrounded by apostles, angels. But the special feature of the Cathedral in Chartres stained glass Windows are dominated by blue color. All stained glass Windows have been preserved to our time and was not injured during the wars. Giant box-rose has 12 petals that radiate on 12 roses. The number 12 is symbolic, it means excellence. The window-rose is a symbol of the heavenly Kingdom and God. Many famous French writers admire the beauty of the Cathedral.
Notre-Dame de Reims.
The Cathedral in Reims is one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in France. The Cathedral in Reims is called the king of all cathedrals. It was built in the period from 1211 1285 by G. five architects who follow each other yet managed to preserve the architectural unity of the Cathedral. Reims Cathedral is famous because here were crowned 25 French kings, starting with Louis VIII