Fortifications of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The tradition of the construction of defensive military installations, fortifications in Europe has for many hundreds of years. The first stone of the tower, but rather wood with a high…

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Mysterious hemisphere in Yakutia
In northwestern Yakutia in the Upper Vilyui river stretches difficult terrain with traces of some grandiose cataclysms: a continuous fall of the old forest, and scattered all around rubble stretching…

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The interior of Reims Cathedral

Gothic architecture — the period of development of Western European and Central European architecture, appropriate Mature and late middle Ages (late twelfth to early sixteenth century). Gothic architecture replaced the Romanesque architecture of the era and in turn gave way to the architecture of the Renaissance period .

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Background

In the second half of the tenth century came to an end the debilitating forces of Europe it is time for military confrontation with the Normans and the Magyars. France resumed the construction of abbeys and monasteries, serving in the main centers of knowledge and education.

Romanesque and Gothic architecture was impossible without architectural predecessors ‘ experience and their accumulated mathematical knowledge. The geometrical proportions prevailed thanks to the authority of scholars of Arabic Spain and of the ancient mathematicians, whose works are actively translated in medieval France. The geometry of the imaginations of medieval artists as a universal means of understanding and modelling the universe.

For the construction of the majestic Gothic Cathedral was required prospected deposits of stone, sand, lime, timber (wood) and the presence of lead. the plates which were covered with long Gothic roof. All of these conditions successfully sovpalo France, Spain, UK, Czech Republic, Italy.

The tree was not good for the gigantic structures, and the frequent fires limited the use of this material. The stone is preferred when creating sacral buildings, castles and feudal fortresses. Sources of white stone had served in France near Tour career. how a stone and carved detail was carried into Picardy. Artois. Champagne and even to England.

The construction was impossible without the proper equipment — steel tools, saws, blocks, large wooden wheels for the delivery of construction materials to a considerable height. The widespread use of these wheels and other engineering devices recorded in portrait miniatures, the paintings of Jan van Eyck and Pieter Brueghel the elder. Broken and accidentally saved the wheels of the time were Museum exhibits.