When I looked down from the towers of Notre Dame, I had a lot of strange thoughts. How many centuries have passed beneath these towers! How many changes – and how little anything has changed!
A small medieval town, surrounded by fields, vineyards and forests. Then growing Paris which several times moved their walls. Paris of the last centuries, which, as noted by Victor Hugo, ‘changing its face once in fifty years’. And people. They’re always going somewhere just past those towers, always somewhere in a hurry – and always there were; they could not see, did not notice; these are the same people. And the towers are the same, with the same chimeras that look at the city, forever changing, forever threatened and forever remaining the same.
Here clearly can see two lines in the life of mankind. One is the life of all the people below; the other is the life line of those who built Notre Dame. Looking down from these towers you feel that the real history of mankind, worthy of mention, and there is a story of the builders of Notre Dame, and not those who pass by. And you realize that these two stories are incompatible. Continue reading
Fast forward to the Maltese archipelago. One of the favorite places for tourists has long been considered a place of historic significance. Here are some of the most ancient mysterious megalithic structures of mankind – the megalithic temples of Malta and Gozo.
Amazing the age of the buildings
The true history of the local ancient inhabitants currently unknown. It is impossible to say who exactly they were, what purpose did it travel to the Islands, but the construction of these skilled craftsmen are still standing today.
Scientists believe that the origins of the civilization of the Maltese builders takes about 7000 years ago. For the most part it was a Neolithic culture – all the buildings made of stone. But about total isolation of the residents say no, it is believed that they had developed trade relations with the European part, in particular with Italy. Continue reading
The tradition of the construction of defensive military installations, fortifications in Europe has for many hundreds of years. The first stone of the tower, but rather wood with a high stone Foundation, appear on the territory of the GDL, i.e. the modern Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Poland in the 13th century. Here begins the history of stone castle construction in the region. Today, take a tour to Minsk. Grodno, Brest and other cities of Belarus, and especially in Lithuania, Poland and Western Ukraine, you can see unique examples of this architectural period.
Based on the localization of these stone “pillars” (Volyn and its dependent territories) they are called also “towers of Volyn type”. Meanwhile, the only thing that unites the above-mentioned structures is the material from which they were built, and with a considerable degree of conditionality. As far as configuration, performance techniques, style solutions, placement in the system of other companies and, accordingly, functions, and here between them there are significant differences. Until recently, regarding the “towers of Volyn type” is also widely used the term “donjon”. But Makarov has proved that most of them has nothing in common with the classic donjon, which was the first permanent fortified dwelling of a feudal Lord. Continue reading