Your world is filled with structures that have stood the test of time. That give character to the cities and landscapes in which they’re located. That are visited by millions of people each year. And that capture our wonder for the marvels of engineering innovation and progress.
But while structures such as the Giza pyramids, Brunelleschi’s dome, and the Brooklyn Bridge are visual spectacles in and of themselves, they are just as important for the way they were designed as for the way they look. These and other structural masterpieces were, first and foremost, novel creations born from the most progressive engineering concepts and tools of their day. They represent uniquely effective solutions to perplexing structural concerns. And they serve as landmark moments in the millennia-long history
Now, experience the engineering genius that makes these works possible with Understanding the World’s Greatest Structures: Science and Innovation from Antiquity to Modernity—a marvelous learning experience that takes you around the world and reveals the stories behind the most famous bridges, churches, skyscrapers, towers, and other structures from thousands of years of history. Delivered by award-winning Professor Stephen Continue reading
Padua is a city very ancient. He grew up in the IV century BC from a conventional, simple fishing villages. By joining the Romans against the Gauls, the city became part of the Roman Empire in 45 BC and reached a high economic level under Augustus. Among the famous natives of Patavium Roman historian Titus Livy. Here flourished the processing and trade of wool. At the end of III – early IV centuries pedancy adopted Christianity. A thriving city is almost not affected from the Huns in 451, however, in the 601 year was almost completely destroyed by the Lombards. The neighborhood began to zavolochitsy, most residents chose to leave this region. The revival of Padua after the return to the city residence of the Bishop of Charlemagne (774 year). In the beginning of the twelfth century Padua was a free community. In 1222, Padua was founded by the University, the second in Italy, which was visited by teachers and students from all over Europe. In the sixteenth century the University began to prosper – here he taught mathematics Galileo Galilei. Both Dante and Petrarch stayed in Padua. However, the most profound mark in the history of Padua Saint Anthony left. Since the urban commune (this is the second half of the XIII century) marked the heyday of Padua. Continue reading
Since the second half of the XII century in Western Europe, and especially in Northern France, there is a new style of architecture, radically different from the Romanesque and Gothic dubbed. The Gothic style was born of the culture of the emerging cities, previously only implemented in architecture and it is firmly established. Citizens victorious in the struggle with the feudal lords become carriers of social and economic progress. A new burgher worldview, addressed to the person-the Creator, the Creator of wealth, the peculiar features of which is the pride for his hometown and desire to glorify him. The symbol of the town is the Cathedral, losing its defensive function. Stylistic changes are justified not only functional changes but also to significant advances in construction technique, based on the exact calculation and accurate construction. The transfer of load-bearing structures outwards facilitates walls, columns, increase height and create a fundamentally new temple’s interior that closely matches the idea of the aspirations of the spirit up to God.
In General, the Gothic cathedrals are characterized by specific stylistic and design features, main of which are:
• oslojneniya Basilica (five naves from the East, three to the West, choral rounds, and the crown of chapels),
• the disappearance of isolation naves by columns tapering, Continue reading